Summary: Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is a promising oilseed crop that may provide sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. One of the major drawbacks of Camelina is its smaller seeds compared to other major oil crops such as canola, which limit oil yield and may also pose challenges in successful seedling establishment, especially in dryland cultivation. Previous studies indicate that seed development may be under metabolic control. We concluded that changing starch and sugar metabolism during seed development may increase the size and mass of seeds without affecting their final oil content in Camelina. Increased seed size may improve seedling establishment in the field and increase seed yield.