Summary: This is a detailed study on the response of spring camelina to the effects of autumn and spring sowing. Smart Earth Seeds Midas variety camelina was sown at six different sowing dates at the experimental farm of Bologna University (Italy) during two consecutive growing seasons (2015-16 and 2016-17). In parallel, three
experiments were also carried out in a growth chamber with different ranges of temperatures during the seed filling period. Samplings allowed identification of a “time frame” in which the main variations in Fatty Acid kinetics occurred. A “critical period” was identified as that in which the closest relation between the final camelina
Fatty Acid composition and temperature during the seed filling stage, occurred. The adoption of this empirical model permitted early evaluation of the final camelina oil
composition with relevant implications for the bio-based industry. Autumn sowing dates were associated with increased plant aboveground biomass, seed yield, seed oil
content, seed weight, and content of linolenic and eicosenoic acid. Since eicosenoic acid is a valuable feedstock for the bio-based industry, growing spring camelina, as
an autumn crop, in the Mediterranean region allows significantly increase the quantity of this infrequent Fatty Acid.